Ben Bernanke gave a speech on Monday night about fostering financial stability, which featured a lot about the risks of shadow banking.
From the prepared speech notes, Bernanke lists the reforms around shadow banking that are under way — but “still at very early stages”. One of those is of course money market funds, to which he gives strong support: Read more
Deposit insurance on non-interest bearing accounts — it was in October 2008 that the FDIC started it, through the Transaction Account Guarantee, or TAG.
Until we looked a bit more closely, we hadn’t guessed that the issue could offer much insight into the complexities of shadow banking regulation. Read more
First off, is sterilisation in the US even new?
As we’ve discussed before, the Fed’s interest on excess reserves (IOER) policy can and has been construed by many as a type of sterilisation policy in its own right. Read more
US money market funds have return to lending to French banks with force, owning $8.6bn of short-term loans issued by the institutions in January, up from $3.2bn in December, Bloomberg Risk reports. The figure is still far below the $78bn of French bank exposure held by money market funds at the end of 2010, but marks the first increase in lending in six months. Societe Generale’s funding from the sector rose to $3.4bn, a tenfold increase. Money market funds pulled dollar funding from French lenders as the eurozone debt crisis worsened in autumn, but have return on hopes that the ECB’s three-year euro liquidity will aid the banking system.
In the first installment of US money market funds versus the eurozone, the funds were seen fleeing the continent as quickly as possible, leaving all sorts of funding chaos in their wake.
In part two, the flight of the US money market funds seems to have intensified, but the outflows have been more clearly redirected… namely into Australian, Canadian and Japanese banks instead. Read more
US money market funds have begun moving back into European bank paper, a sign that central bank efforts to backstop key institutions are improving risk appetite, says the FT. This past week, money market funds bought French bank paper with maturities as long as one month, as well as small amounts of Spanish bank paper, the newspaper says. The funds also bought longer-dated UK, Dutch and Scandinavian bank paper, up to six-month maturities. Notes issued by US banks with foreign parents rose $6bn to $152bn and foreign domiciled bank notes outstanding rose nearly $3bn to $133bn, according to figures from the Federal Reserve. Last year, money market funds were sellers of many European banks’ short-term commercial paper as worries grew about the repercussions of a possible European sovereign default. That was a critical factor in market anxiety, as the highly rated funds’ $2.7tn in liquid assets are a key source of dollar funding.
That chart is from the latest Fitch Ratings report of the biggest US prime money market funds. Read more
The trying days continue for US money market funds.
They’re still attracting some haven-chasers for now, but the combination of complying with the SEC’s Rule 2a-7, increased credit risk from Europe and the endless low interest rate environment is making it difficult for them to cover costs. Read more
Yale University’s Gary Gorton and Guillermo Ordoñez have a new working paper out on the role of collateral in financial crises. This may not pass for exciting news in some places but FT Alphaville is not like other places. Gorton is renowned for his work on shadow banking and wrote an excellent short primer on the recent crisis.
(Update: He’s also, as our commenters point out, the man behind some of the AIG’s risk-management models. Take that as you will, we still think there are some interesting insights in the paper.) Read more
Via Fitch Rating’s latest report on US prime money market funds’ European bank exposure, and as reported by the FT on Friday:
The biggest US money market funds have slashed their exposure to Europe’s embattled banking sector to the lowest since at least 2006, the FT reports, underlining the spreading nervousness about the eurozone’s indebted periphery. The 10 largest US money market funds reduced their short-term lending to European banks to just $284.6bn by the end of August, or 42.1 per cent of their total assets, Fitch Ratings said in a report published on Thursday. That’s the lowest relative exposure since at least the second half of 2006, when Fitch’s records begin, and lower than the level reached during the nadir of the financial crisis. Since the end of June, these “prime” money market funds, which act as lubricants for the global financial system and invest mostly in highly-rated debt, have cut their European banking exposure by more than $55bn in absolute terms.
There’s been a lot of focus on US money market withdrawals from European banks adding to the current market stress in Europe. But could this be a bit of a red herring?
Kash Mansori at the Street Light blog has pulled data from the ECB’s data warehouse, showing a steep decline in deposits held by European monetary financial institutions (MFIs) — that is, banks and money market funds. Read more
A fortnight is a long time in short-term credit markets.
Reports of US money market funds pulling out of European banks in July abounded last month – and French banks appear to be particularly vulnerable due to their relatively high reliance on short-term funds and lower deposit ratios. Well, the trend continued in August, the FT reports: Read more
There’s been a lot of talk about how the US money market mutual funds are pulling their money out of the eurozone. And generally chopping and changing the nature of their investments.
But how exactly do the mechanics of that work, and what are the exposures? Read more
Rumours of funding problems at French banks have been rife this summer.
Without even getting into specific financial firms, you can see a potential issues. Read more
Worries about European banks’ US dollar funding have been growing lately, even though the latest Fed data show foreign banks still have huge piles of cash on an aggregate basis.
But that’s just one part of the funding story. Another concerns our old friends, the money market funds. Fitch Ratings on Monday published its latest monthly report on US MMF exposure to European banks. Read more
Anyone catch this from the New York Fed on Friday? It’s hugely important:
Beginning Monday, August 15, the New York Fed intends to conduct another series of small-scale reverse repurchase (repo) transactions using all eligible collateral types. The first operation will be conducted using only the expanded reverse repo counterparties announced on July 27, 2011. Subsequent operations in this series will be open to all eligible reverse repo counterparties. Read more
Bank of America Merril Lynch’s Shyam Rajan is one of our favourite repo market experts. He’s been following every twist and turn in this unique post-Lehman crisis repo environment.
And his view regarding the downgrade is clear. It will have little impact on the repo markets because most fund and index mandates will not change the way they treat US Treasury securities. They will, to all extent and purposes, remain invest-able. Read more
Money market funds invested in government bonds have increased cash available to meet short-term withdrawals to over two-thirds of their assets, building up liquidity in case of a United States sovereign default, the FT reports. Holdings had been just under half of assets at the end of March. Funds are also avoiding one-month Treasury notes which mature on August 4 and August 11, during the deadline period for raising the US debt ceiling. Corporate treasurers have also moved towards bolstering their cash reserves and hedging interest-rate risk ahead of expected volatility in the Treasury market, reports the WSJ.
US money market funds are stockpiling cash in case Congress fails to raise the debt ceiling, distorting the short-term market for US government debt and raising borrowing costs for banks and other financial institutions, the FT reports. While the funds will continue to hold US Treasuries in the event of a downgrade or default, they are building up liquidity and shunning certain securities due to fears that a failure to raise the debt ceiling could trigger client redemptions. Government-only money market funds have boosted the amount of cash available to meet redemptions within one week to 68 per cent of assets, from 48 per cent at the end of March, according to Barclays Capital. US banks are also bracing for a US default, by holding onto more cash and locking in longer-term financing, also in the FT. They are particularly concerned about the repo market, used for short-term funding.
The president of the Boston Fed has outlined potential reforms to the money market fund industry in new detail, Reuters reports. “While several proposals have been suggested, some combination of capital buffers, floating rate NAVs and enhanced disclosure seems the best way forward,” Eric Rosengren said. Floating net asset values have proven controversial, with money market fund executives arguing a fixed $1-per-share NAV provides a bedrock of stability, despite the breaking of the buck by Reserve Primary in the 2008 crisis. Capital buffers rather than an industry-desired “liquidity bank” might be a solution, if they are accepted in place of switching to floating NAVs.
European banks have found far less credit available from US money market funds in the last few weeks, withdrawing a prime supply of short-term financing, the FT reports. Even French banks have seen funding opportunities decline. One banker said that one week or one month was the limit for term funding, down from six to nine months before the middle of June. Lending to Italian or Spanish banks has vanished altogether, one money market fund head said. Funds have been cutting exposure to the region for some time, but French banks were traditionally among the greatest sources of European paper for investment.
US money market funds have sharply cut their exposure to banks in the eurozone over the past few weeks and reduced the availability of credit, even in stronger countries such as France, the FT reports. The money market funds, historically crucial providers of short term financing to European banks, have withdrawn from all but extremely short-term lending as concerns about sovereign debt have mounted. While the agreement of a second bail-out deal for Greece might ease nerves, the funds are also stockpiling cash in case US politicians fail to raise the federal debt ceiling, prompting withdrawals from investors.
Thursday’s New York Times article on Wall Street’s fallback plans for a technical US default and/or a downgrade of the US credit rating has generated a bit of buzz. Here’s the gist:
On Wall Street, Treasuries function like a currency, and investors often use these bonds, which are supposed to be virtually fail-proof, as security deposits in their trading in the markets. Now, banks are sifting through their holdings and their customers’ holdings to determine if these security deposits will retain their value. In addition, mutual funds — which own billions of dollars in Treasuries — are working on presentations to persuade their boards that they can hold the bonds even if the government debt is downgraded. And hedge funds are stockpiling cash so they can buy up United States debt if other investors flee.
That the European Central Bank has stepped in to replace much of the eurosystem liquidity that used to be provided by the banks’ themselves is well-known. Did you know, however, that one measure of the ECB’s liquidity provision is now higher than in the depths of the 2008 financial crisis? Read more
Here’s an interesting chart from Société Générale compiled using data from EPFR Global.
It shows recent flows in and out of European money-market funds. Read more
Where “good” = yield from a nice Eonia trade.
Quite frankly, this looks to us like picking up pennies in front of a steamroller. Read more
US commercial paper issuance has rebounded to its highest level in nearly two years as companies and banks take advantage of low interest rates, says the FT. While the market for short-term debt issuance has grown, it is unlikely to reclaim the heights seen in 2007, when reliance on such funding was a key element in fuelling the pre-crisis credit bubble. US issuance has risen to $1,227bn, according to the latest weekly data. However, Bloomberg adds that the European debt crisis could pose a threat to money market funds if a rash of sovereign defaults caused big banks to fail to meet obligations within the next three months. Zero Hedge asks if general collateral is the next ‘buck-breaking” source of frozen liquidity.
US money market funds are struggling to make returns after short-term interest rates fell to record lows in the wake of regulatory changes and a big decline in Treasury bill issuance, the FT reports. The recent drop in rates has compounded the already low level of returns money market funds have made since the Federal Reserve set overnight rates in a band of zero to 0.25 per cent in December 2008. The low interest rate environment means a growing number of funds are losing business and coming under mounting pressure to consolidate. The Investment Companies Institute calculates that last year the industry waived $4.5bn of fees to maintain the fixed $1 per share net asset value of funds. See also FT Alphaville posts.