So just how fast will the the Bank of England raise interest rates? For clues and pointers on its latest thinking now that employment has rapidly approached the thresholds (markers, thumb rules?) of forward guidance , the Inflation Report is out. Click to get straight to it:
As a reminder, the big unknown about the US labour market is the extent to which the demographic-adjusted decline in the labour force participation rate has been caused by cyclical vs structural trends. And in addition to the decline in the unemployment rate, a few other economic indicators suggest the potential for a near-term increase in wages.
From a note by Paul Ashworth of Capital Economics: Read more
Here’s a rough sketch of the variables influencing US inflation, which has been remarkably low for two years running:
1) The remaining labour market slack, including a staggering and resilient long-term unemployment problem. The amount of slack remains tough to know given the difficulty of measuring the cyclical vs secular components of the fall in the labour force participation rate. Much more on this later.
2) The output gap. This isn’t a well-defined idea, we know, but few people would argue that the US economy is producing at potential. The US economic recovery does appear to have accelerated in the final two quarters of last year (the December jobs report notwithstanding), and the conditions for growth look better than they have in years. If the nascent acceleration proves sustainable, then the labour market may well tighten up and push wages higher. Obviously this is related to the first point about labour market slack, and plenty of caveats are needed given the head-fakes of the last four winters. Read more
Bond vigilantes might want to turn away. The following analysis is not pretty for those who have bet everything on a taper-related spike in US yields.
As HSBC’s Steven Major notes on Friday, he is doubtful that the short-term path for US yields will be anything other than lower.
Key to his analysis is the fact that growth and inflation are disconnecting in an unusual way:
We know that living in a counterintuitive zero-rate world can lead to lay misunderstandings.
For example, there’s the paradox of thrift and the idea that saving can be bad. WHAAT? Then there’s asset nationalisation and government spending, and the idea these can be good for capitalism. WHAAT REALLY? Last and not least — after years of general indoctrination that inflation is always bad — there’s the fact that inflation can actually be a good thing.
This presumably explains why, when the ONS announced this week that UK CPI had slowed to 2 per cent, the story was almost universally covered in the UK press as a good thing and a sign of a wonderfully encouraging turnaround in the economy.
Indeed, UK chancellor, George Osborne, was immediately wheeled out across numerous networks to take credit for his fabulous economic work. Read more
Who thinks UK base rates will go higher this year? We ask because Economics Editor Chris Giles made precisely that bold prediction in the FT’s collection of holiday prophesy.
Will the Bank of England raise interest rates in 2014?
Yes. It is fashionable to think this is an absurd question to which the answer is obviously no. But not for the first time, fashion sucks. The British economy is growing at an annualised rate of more than 3 per cent, unemployment is rapidly falling towards the Bank of England’s 7 per cent threshold when it considers rate rises and inflation has been above the central bank’s 2 per cent target for all of the past four years. The reason the BoE would keep rates on hold at 0.5 per cent amid a fast expansion is a rapid improvement in productivity, allowing recovery to coexist with an absence of inflationary pressure.
The chart above is from a note by Credit Suisse economists, who write: Read more
As we’ve noted before it’s all feeling a little 1999 out there.
Lombard Street ‘s Dario Perkins agrees. He’s just released research entitled “Party like it’s 1999″, in he notes: Read more
Since September 2011, the Fed has succeeded in managing inflation expectations but not inflation itself. Has anybody noticed? What happens when they do? Will QE4 be as successful at changing even inflation expectations when QE1, QE2, Operation Twist and QE3 have failed to prevent recorded inflation from now falling to 1.1%?
Russell Napier, strategist for CLSA, warns that benign inflation (s0 far as stock market investors are concerned) is very close to becoming dangerous deflation once more. (H/T to Climateer.) Read more
Josh Brown, aka the Reformed Broker, is pleased to see his favourite of all the earth’s charts, updated by the Stock Trader’s Almanac.
Far be it from us to stand in the way of good chart, or the majestic sweep of history, but we’re going to admit to some confusion on this one (click to enlarge). Read more
US 10-year Tips are feeling the full brunt of taper-talk. First there was an abrupt sell-off on Wednesday in the 30 year sector, with break-even rates moving lower across the whole Tips spectrum after the US consumer price index fell for the first time in six months. Then there was a swift recovery with strong auction demand on Thursday following the Philly Fed.
As TD Securities’ Richard Gilhooly observed:
Treasury will auction $13bn 10yr TIPs at 1pm, a second re-opening that will take the benchmark size to $41bn. The real yield is around 61bp after the market has bounced on weaker Philly Fed, with 30yr nominals steepening out to new highs on the 5-30s curve before some aggressive buying in the 30yr sector materialised in the past half hour. 10y Real yields have ranged from 32bp in late October to a high of around 90bp in early September and an absolute low of -75bp in April of this year.
Article 5 — In the event of operations involving amounts that meet or exceed THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY THOUSAND PESOS, registration managers should define a user profile, which will be based on information and documentation relating to the economic, household, financial and tax situation, and will require supporting evidence or information which proves the origin of funds.
That’s FT Alphaville’s (very rough) translation of Disposición 446/2013 from the Argentine government. H/T Bloomberg. It’s about buying expensive cars. Read more
Deficit continues to be a dirty word in the US (despite *those* findings about the holier-than-thou Clinton surpluses not being all that great), whilst the idea that the US is an unsustainable deficit spender increasingly propagates in mainstream circles.
But, as Ethan Harris at Bank of America Merrill Lynch shows on Monday, nothing could be further from the truth. In reality the US deficit is contracting at a relatively speedy rate: Read more
On the danger or not of China’s inflation rate:
The FTSE index people at the LSE on Tuesday published their annual review of country classifications. There were no actual movements between the categories — Developed, Advanced Emerging, Secondary Emerging and Frontier — although two countries have joined the FTSE watch list:
Ukraine has been thrown off the list completely and is no longer being considered as a possible Frontier entrant. Too many problems with regulatory oversight and capital controls, it seems. Read more
*Use interesting onion stat to highlight Indian inflation problem ahead of Rajan’s first rate decision where the expectation is for a hold, but language and liquidity steps are in the spotlight*
*Attempt weak onion+tears metaphor*
*Delete because too weak/awful* Read more
There’s an interesting debate going on between Steve Randy Waldman, Karl Smith, Scott Sumner, Evan Soltas, Mark Sadkowski (and more).
It started when Waldman proposed a simple but elegant argument that the 1970s great inflation period may have driven not so much by expansionary monetary policy but rather population demographics: namely the baby boom and the entrance of female workers into the economy. Read more
The great chart above comes via Mark Perry of AEI. Read more
Here’s a funny thing.
There was an amusing altercation between self-declared Austrian Peter Schiff (of “I see inflation everywhere” fame) versus The Money Illusion‘s Scott Sumner on Monday. It happened on Larry Kudlow’s show on CNBC. Read more
Gold descended through the key psychological level of $1,200 on Thursday:
This has now led a whole bunch of people getting excited about an upcoming bottom in gold, as well its prospective speedy revival. Read more
That’s from Deutsche Bank today.
We joke, we joke. A little. Deutsche had of course already joined the commodities-supercycle-is-dead chorus, and this note is not from the commodities side but by Asia chief economists Taimur Baig and Jun Ma. Read more
Nomura’s Richard Koo put out a note on Tuesday reacting to the rise in JGB yields since the Bank of Japan went into QE overdrive that seems worthy of some attention.
He thinks the Bank of Japan, in reaction to yields heading upwards, needs to declare that it will not tolerate overshooting of inflation. They’ll need to rein themselves in:
What can the BOJ do? To begin with, the Bank and the government could make it clear that they are targeting a 2% rate of inflation but at the same time, they will not under any condition tolerate a significant overshooting of that rate.
The chart above is from Credit Suisse economists, who add: Read more
Gavyn Davies has a great post looking at the recent work by Fed researchers and the Goldman Sachs economics team on trends in US labour force participation and their implications for US monetary policy. See also Robin Harding last month.
To recapitulate, the US unemployment rate has continued to decline steadily, and at its current pace would hit the Fed’s 6.5 per cent threshold to begin raising rates by roughly the middle of next year. Read more
Bank of Korea has done its bit to stoke the currency wars…
Although they insist that it’s not. From BAML’s Jaewoo Lee:
In the press interview, the Governor cited a few main changes since April which led the BoK to cut in May rather than in April: the supplementary budget was finalized; many central banks, including the ECB, turned to easing mode; and the easing can help further with improving sentiments. The Governor, on the other hand, stated that today’s decision was not a response to the yen weakness, contrary to the often-voiced speculation.
(Charts via Capital Economics.)
The trend is consistent with what appears to be a spring slowdown in global growth. It’s probably worth noting that the wild fluctuations in the headline rate have had only a muted impact on core inflation in the past decade. Just something to keep in mind when you start hearing calls for policy action at the first hint of commodity price gyrations. Read more
Barclays economists write that the gap between core CPI and core PCE in the United States has widened to its largest in about a decade. They have an interesting note explaining some of the reasons why, though not all of them are clear and right now this is mainly an academic issue:
Some stagnant stats out of Eurostat on Tuesday….
Euro area unemployment rate at 12.1%
EU27 at 10.9%
Here’s the damage, broken down… Read more